Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Rape itself is not only a crime. Rape is a state of mind which insists a hyper sexually disordered person (a rapist) for having or creating or fantasizing Sexual attack to the opposite sex, maybe also to the same-sex. A rapist or a hyper sexually disordered person can live in several forms among us and this category of forms would divide by according to their ways of addiction onto biological sex.


The sexual assaulted techniques or fantasies in biological sex do not create in a day, as because this is fully a psychological imbalance of a person’s mind about the sexual intercourse or sexual arousal. So it can be said that those thoughts of sexual arousal techniques are developed mostly from the adolescent stage of a person, in some cases, they could develop from the mid-age stage of the lifespan.

In the following, there has been documented a type of sexually disordered persons living around us, those who would be a future threat to our society. It is very much important to identify those characteristic hyper-sexually disordered persons or youngsters for providing them the treatment. They badly need psychological counseling. The mind can not conduct with the force of laws as it is a spiritual entity gifted by nature.


Types of sexual disorders’ or category of hyper sexually disordered person:
1. Exhibitionism: Exposing genitals to an unsuspecting stranger.
A man with exhibitionism typically gets an erection and may masturbate while exposing himself. Men with this disorder commonly report that they don’t intend to frighten or shock strangers, but hope that strangers will enjoy or be aroused by seeing their genitals.
2. Voyeurism: Observing an unsuspecting person who is disrobing or having sex.
It is characterized by sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve observing someone who is in the process of undressing, is nude, or is engaged in sexual activity. The person being watched has neither consented to nor is aware of being observed. The voyeur rarely has physical contact with the observed person. Moreover, voyeurism is distinguished from looking at pornography or watching nude dancing; voyeurism involves observing someone who does not know that he or she is being observed. A man with this disorder might use binoculars to “spy” on a woman, masturbating while observing her through her window as she undresses, or might plant hidden cameras and watch the video later or via an Internet feed.
3. Frotteurism: Touching or rubbing against a non-consenting person.
This diagnosis has two types: men who like to rub, and men who like to touch (touchers). On crowded public transportation, men with frotteurism try to stand or sit next to attractive females and rub their genitals against the victims’ buttocks, thighs, or crotch, often while fantasizing that they are having consensual sex. When discovered, men with frotteurism flee from the train or bus.
4. Pedophilia: Sexual activity with a prepubescent child.
Child sexual abuse is a crime. the person with pedophilia must be at least 16 years old, and at least 5 years older than the child. Thus, someone is diagnosed with pedophilia if he has had sexual activity with a child (and so would also be considered a child molester) or if he has sexual fantasies about or urges to do so and these impulses significantly impair his relationships or cause distress. Someone with pedophilia may or may not sexually molest children; a child molester may or may not be diagnosed with pedophilia, depending on the duration of the related fantasies, urges, or behaviors.
5. Fetishism: Using a nonliving object to become aroused.
A single, 32-year-old male free-lance photographer presented with the chief complaint of “abnormal sex drive.” The patient related that although he was somewhat sexually attracted by women, he was far more attracted by “their panties”. His first ejaculation occurred at 12 via masturbation to fantasies of women wearing panties. He masturbated into his older sister’s panties, which he had stolen without her knowledge. Subsequently, he stole panties from her friends and other women he met socially. He found pretexts to “wander” into bedrooms of women during social occasions, and would quickly rummage through their possessions until he found a pair of panties to his satisfaction. He later used these to masturbate into and then “saved them” in a “private cache.” The pattern of masturbating into women’s underwear had been his preferred method of achieving sexual excitement and orgasm from adolescence.
Reference: Robin S. Rosenberg and Stephen M. Kosslyn “Abnormal Psychology”

Science does not allow any limit on your thoughts to think. Every Science fiction thoughts could turn into a Real Science but Every Real Science could never be a Science Fiction of your thoughts. The fiction has innovative power to give you a strength for something new invention. So keep thinking to make your Mind more active rather than to make your brain more usable.  

মানুষ সামাজিক জীব, অনেক গুলো সামাজিক জীবের সমনয়ে গঠিত হয় একটি সমাজ তথা রাস্ট্র। সমাজে বাস করতে গিয়ে একজন মানুষের সাথে অপর একজন মানুষের সাথে যে সম্পর্ক তৈরি হয় তাই তাঁকে সামাজিক জীব করে তোলে। এই সম্পর্ক হতে পারে ভালবাসার-ভাললাগার, হিংসার, লালসা-কামনা, ব্যাথা-বেদনা অথবা দুর্নীতি প্রভৃতি; এক কথায় সব ধরনের আবেগপূর্ণ সম্পর্কই মানুষের সামাজিক জীব হয়ে ওঠার মুল শর্ত।

আবেগ সম্পূর্ণ একটি অবচেতন মনের অংশ বলেই আমার ধারণা। আমরা অনেকেই হয়তো জানি না বা বিশ্বাস করতে চাই না যে, মানুষের মস্তিষ্ক ও মন দুটো সম্পূর্ণ ভিন্ন। দুটোর মধ্যে মুল পার্থক্য এখানেই যে, মন সম্পূর্ণ আলাদা একটি সত্তা; অপরদিকে মানব মস্তিষ্ক একটি দেহের অংশ বিশেষ মাত্র।

{A. The Brain of itself does not work. The brain does not think and yet man thinks. So behind the brain there must be a Thinker”

B. “The man had two minds; One Conscious and one un-conscious or sub-conscious. The Conscious mind being the one that he used of all the time in his self-conscious state and the sub-conscious mind being the storehouse of all his conscious thoughts, as well as the seat of his memory.”

[Ref: The Science of Mind by Ernest S. Holmes] }


মানুষের (Homo Sapiens)আত্মা অথবা মন (Soul)সাধারণত তিন অবস্থায় থাকতে পারেঃ ১. সচেতন মন (Conscious Mind), (২) অবচেতন মন (Sub-conscious), (৩) অচেতন মন (Unonscious mind)

অবচেতন মনে আমাদের যে আবেগ/অনুভূতি নিঃসৃত হচ্ছে তাই আমরা সচেতন অবস্থায় প্রকাশ করে থাকি। শুধু তাই নয়, অবচেতন মনকেই মুলত সকল কাজকর্ম বা চিন্তা ভাবনার উৎস হিসেবে ধরা যায়। আমি কি বলতে চাই, কি লিখতে চাই, কি দেখতে চাই অথবা কি পড়তে চাই সবই সিধান্ত হচ্ছে অবচেতন মন থেকে, অতঃপর সেই সিধান্তকে আমরা বাস্তবে রুপান্তর করছি সচেতন অবস্থায়। আমাদের যে ভাবনার জগত তা “অবচেতন মন” (Sub-concsious Mind) এবং ভাবনার যে বহিঃপ্রকাশ করছি তাই হচ্ছে “সচেতন মন” (Conscious Mind)। উদাহরন স্বরুপঃ কোন মেয়েকে দেখার পরে একটি ছেলের মনে যে ভাললাগা, আকর্ষণ জন্ম নেয় তাই একটা সময়ে ভালবাসায় হয়তো রূপান্তর হয় এবং এই রুপান্তরের শুরুটা ঘটে ছেলেটির অবচেতন মনে, অবচেতন মন যদি ভালবাসার অনুভুতি না জাগ্রত করতো তবে সচেতন মনে ছেলেটি কোনদিনই সেই ভালবাসার কথা মেয়েটির সম্মুখে প্রকাশ করতে পারতো না। ঠিক অপরভাবে কোন মেয়ের প্রতি যদি কোন ছেলের লালসা-কামনা জেগে উঠে তবে তা রুপান্তরিত হতে পারে ধর্ষণে কিংবা ইভ টিজিঙের মাধ্যমে। এই রুপান্তরিত অনুভূতি (লালসা-কামনা) সম্পন্ন হচ্ছে অবচেতন মনে আর রুপান্তরিত হওয়ার ফলে যে ফলাফল (ধর্ষণ / ইভ টিজিং) আসতেছে তার বহিঃপ্রকাশ ঘটছে সচেতন মনে। তাই বলা বাহুল্য রাখে না যে, এই অবচেতন মনই আমাদের কে পরিচালনা করে আসতেছে মানব সৃষ্টির শুরু থেকেই। অতএব, মস্তিষ্ক নয়, অবচেতন মনকে আমরা ধরে নিতে পারি আমাদের জীবনের কান্ডারী। এই অবচেতন মনেই বাসা বেঁধে আছে সব রকমের ভালোবাসা, ব্যাথা বেদনা, হাসি-কান্না ইত্যাদি সকল অনুভূতি কিংবা আবেগ।

এবার মূল প্রসঙ্গে আসা যাক; সম্পর্ক-হীন সমাজঃ সম্পর্কহীন সমাজ আমরা তাকেই বলবো যে সমাজে মানুষের সাথে মানুষের কোন প্রকার সম্পর্ক নেই। একটি একটি মানুষের জীবন হবে এক একটি সম্পর্কহীন জীবন। ছোট্ট কথায় বলা যেতে পারে, আবেগহীন জীবনই সম্পর্কহীন জীবন। তাই সম্পর্কহীন জীবনের মৌলিক শর্ত হতে হবেঃ 

১. মানুষ সামাজিক জীব নয় অসামাজিক জীব হয়ে বসবাস করবে

২. মানুষের জীবনে কোন প্রকার আবেগ অথবা অনুভূতি থাকবে না।

অসামাজিক জীব হয়ে ওঠার অর্থ এই নয় যে মানুষ হত্যা-খুন, ধর্ষণ, ঝগড়া-ফ্যাসাদ ইত্যাদি নানা অপকর্মে লিপ্ত হবে। এখানে অসামাজিক জীব বলতে আমরা বুজবো সম্পর্ক বিহীন জীব। আর সম্পর্কহীন জীবের প্রথম ধাপ হলো আবেগহীন অথবা অনুভূতিহীন হয়ে পড়া, অর্থাৎ অবচেতনে মনে কোন প্রকার আবেগ জড়িত থাকতে পারবে না। এখন অনেকেই বলে উঠতে পারি, আবেগহীন মানুষ তো মানুষ নয়, রোবট হবে !!! কিন্তু তা ভুল, কেননা রক্ত মাংস দিয়ে আবেগহীন যে গঠন সৃষ্টি হবে তা কোনদিনই রোবট হতে পারে না। সম্পর্কহীন জিবনে তথা সমাজে আমরা যা করে বেড়াবো, হতে পারে তা ভালোবাসা, হতে পারে তা শত্রুতা কিংবা অনেক কিছুই, কিন্তু এই সব কিছুই হতে হবে আবেগ অথবা অনুভূতিহীন। এক কথায় সম্পর্কহীন জীবন মানেই মন থেকে আবেগের বিসর্জন কিংবা অনুভূতি সমূহের বিলুপ্তি।

মন (Soul/Mind) হচ্ছে মানুষের একটি ভিন্ন জৈবিক সত্তা, ভিন্ন কেননা একে ছোঁয়া যায় না, ধরা যায় না, দেখা যায় না কিন্তু শুধু মাত্র অনুভব করতে পারি আমরা। এই অনুভবটাই প্রমাণ করে মন বলে একটি সত্তা মানুষের মধ্যে বিদ্যমান। এই অদৃশ্য সত্তাকে (মন) নিয়ন্ত্রনের মাধ্যমেই সম্পর্কহীন মানুষ হওয়া সম্ভব এবং তার জন্যে প্রয়োজন হবে মলিকিউলার সাইকোফিজিওলজি (Molicular Psychophysiology) সম্পর্কিত জ্ঞ্যান, অতঃপর মাইন্ড কন্ট্রোল ডিভাইস (Mind Control Device);

{“Scientists can now remotely turn genes on and off inside a mouse using nothing but the power of their minds. Based on this technology, they’re now working on new ‘in-built’ medical treatments that allow a patient’s brainwaves to identify pain or an impending epileptic seizure and automatically release medication into the body.”

[Ref: Mind-controlled transgene expression by a wireless-powered optogenetic designer cell implant; Nature Communications 5, Article number: 5392]}.

একটি মাইন্ড কন্ট্রোল ডিভাইস দিয়ে আমরা নিজেরাই আমাদের শরীরের কিছু জীনের কার্যক্রম নিয়ন্ত্রন করতে পারবো। এই ডিভাইস সহায়তা করবে মানুষের বিভিন্ন মস্তিষ্ক তরঙ্গ চিহ্নিত করতে যারা কিনা বিভিন্ন অনুভূতির সাথে জড়িত কেননা অবচেতন মন আমাদের যেভাবে যে দিকে পরিচালনা করবে তার প্রভাব আমাদের নিউরন সেলে গিয়ে সেই পরিবর্তন আনবে। বিজ্ঞানের কল্যাণে আজ অনেক বৈজ্ঞানিক কল্পকাহিনীকে বাস্তবে রুপ দেওয়া সম্ভব হচ্ছে। কে জানতো একজন মানুষ তার মস্তিষ্ক দিয়ে অন্য আরেকটি মস্তিষ্কের সাথে সংযোগ স্থাপন করতে পারবে ? হ্যাঁ এটিও এখন করা সম্ভব এবং বিজ্ঞান আমাদের সেই সময়ের দিকেই ধাবিত করে চলেছে প্রতিনিয়ত।

[{“1. The team, which includes researchers from Harvard Medical School’s Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the Starlab Barcelona in Spain, and Axilum Robotics in France, has announced the successful transmission of a brain-to-brain message over a distance of 8,000 kilometres.

2. The second time scientist have succeeded in creating the brain-to-brain communication. Scientists in the US have successfully linked the brains of six people, allowing one person to control the hands of another using just their thoughts.”

[Ref: 1. Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies; PLoS ONE 9(8): e105225

2. A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans; PLoS ONE 9(11): e111332”]

উপরের উল্লেখিত উদাহরন দুটিই বলে দিচ্ছে, মানুষ একদিন তার চিন্তা-ভাবনার নিয়ন্ত্রন নিজেরাই পরিচালনা করতে যাচ্ছে। অতএব সম্পর্কহীন জীবন তথা সম্পর্কহীন সমাজ ব্যবস্থা গড়ে তোলা সম্ভব। একে কল্পকাহিনী ভেবে বসার কোন অবকাশ নেই। আমি চাই আমাদের সমাজ ব্যবস্থা সম্পর্কহীন হবে কেননা একটি সম্পর্কহীন জীবন মানেই একটি সম্পূর্ণ স্বাধীন জীবন আর একটি সম্পূর্ণ স্বাধীন জীবন পেতে কে না চায় বলুন?

Modern drug discovery is characterized by the production of vast quantities of compounds and the need to examine these huge libraries in short periods of time. The need to store, manage and analyze these rapidly increasing resources has given rise to the field known as computer-aided drug design (CADD). CADD represents computational methods and resources that are used to facilitate the design and discovery of new therapeutic solutions. Digital repositories, containing detailed information on drugs and other useful compounds, are goldmines for the study of chemical reactions capabilities. Design libraries, with the potential to generate molecular variants in their entirety, allow the selection and sampling of chemical compounds with diverse characteristics. Fold recognition, for studying sequence-structure homology between protein sequences and structures, are helpful for inferring binding sites and molecular functions. Virtual screening, the in silico analog of high-throughput screening, offers great promise for systematic evaluation of huge chemical libraries to identify potential lead candidates that can be synthesized and tested.

A Brief History of CADD
1900: The receptor and lock-and-key concepts
P. Ehrich (1909) and E. Fisher(1894)

1970s: Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)
Limitations: 2-Dimensional, retrospective analysis

1980s: Beginning of CADD
Molecular Biology
X-ray crystallography, multi-dimensional NMR
Molecular modeling , computer graphics

1990s: Human genome
Combinatorial chemistry
High-throughput screening

The cost of drug discovery and development process has increased significantly during the past thirty-four years. The cost of drug development has increased from $4 million in 1962 to over $350 million in 1996 (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: The cost of drug development from $4million in 1962 to over $350 million in 1996

Fig. 1: The cost of drug development from $4million in 1962 to over $350 million in 1996

Moreover, during this process, only a small amount of candidates will be examined in the clinic and few will be marketed. In 1950, it was estimated that 7,000 compounds had to be isolated or synthesized and then tested for therapeutic activity for each one that became a pharmaceutical product. The challenge is becoming more difficult: 10,000 compounds had to be evaluated in 1979, and this number could be as high as 20,000 today (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Timeline in a drug discovery project

Fig. 2: Timeline in a drug discovery project

The reasons for this are several-fold. The market for so called high value-added compounds is very competitive. The new compound must offer improved characteristics in order to be worthwhile for commercialization. Also there are serious hurdles regarding ease and cost of synthesis, patentability, safety, and social need for the new compound.

CADD Strategy Towards Drug Discovery
Computer-aided drug design (CADD) is one of these tools which can be used to increase the efficiency of the drug discovery process. CADD cannot maximize its utility in isolation and will not do so. Rather, it can form a valuable partnership with experiment by providing estimates when experiments are difficult, expensive, or impossible, and by coordinating the experimental data available. A close coupling between computational chemists and experimentalists allows information to flow immediately and directly between the two. This helps CADD chemists to better understand the details of the problem and to refine their approach.

CADD in Lead generation
In the early stage of a drug discovery process, researchers may be faced with little or no structure activity relationship (SAR) information. At this point, assay development and screening should be undertaken immediately by the high-throughput screening (HTS) group. The aim of these analyses is to select and test fewer compounds, whilst gaining as much information as possible about the dataset. However if a lead is known, then more focused approach can be adopted by searching for compounds with similar (two or three-dimensional) structures to the lead candidate or by substructure searching4. In substructure searching the query will retrieve those structures from the database that contain groups present in the primary lead. These molecules can then be screened in a biological assay.

CADD in Lead Optimization
In medicinal chemistry the lead optimization process concerns many aspects such as the optimization of the affinity for the biological target, the toxicity, the oral bioavailability, the cell permeability, the plasma binding, the ease of metabolism6. The principle employed is that any incremental change in the chemical structure produces incremental (positive or negative) changes in bio-activity and a systematic study of such cause and effect relationship is called structure activity relationship (SAR) study. The process is highly iterative and traditionally based on trial-anerror. When no structural data about the target is available, the lead optimization process can be made more methodological by using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies. QSAR methods are used to attempt to correlate Two different approaches can be used in QSAR depending on the available compounds:

(1) Two-dimensional QSAR (2D-QSAR) and
(2) Three-dimensional QSAR (3D-QSAR).

This problem limits the applicability of CoMFA. In order to overcome this problem, some new approaches, which do not depend on a common alignment of the molecules, have been recently developed. Comparative molecular moment analysis CoMMA9, EVA or the WHIM are used because they provide three dimensional descriptors that are independent of the orientation of the molecules in space; they do not have to be aligned.

Software for Molecular Modeling

􀀼 General purpose molecular modeling (large & small molecules)
molecular mechanics, dynamics and multifunctional programs

􀀼 Quantum Chemistry calculations (small molecules)
molecular orbital or quantum mechanical calculations

􀀼 Database of molecular structures (large & small molecules)
software for storage and retrieval of molecular structure data

􀀼 Molecular graphics (large & small molecules)
programs to visualize molecules

􀀼 QSAR (small molecules)

Software for General Purpose Molecular Modeling

For workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers (SGI, Sun, Cray, etc.)

AMBER — Peter Kollman and coworkers, UCSF Computer assisted model building, energy minimization, molecular dynamics, and free energy perturbation calculations.

Midas Plus — UCSF Computer Graphics Laboratory

CHARMM — Martin Karplus and cowrokers, Harvard

QUANTA/CHARMm — Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI) molecular/drug design, QSAR, quantum chemistry, X-ray & NMR data analysis

Insight/DISCOVER — Biosym, Inc. Now MSI and Biosym became Accelrys Inc.

SYBYL — Tripos, Inc.

ECEPP — (Harold Scheraga and coworkers, Cornell)
MM3 — (Norman Allinger and coworkers, Georgia)

For personal computers (Apple, Compaq, IBM, etc.)

Alchemy III — Tripos, Inc. Structure building and manipulation,

Chem3D Pro — CambridgeSoft Corp.

Desktop Molecular Modeller — Oxford Elec. Publishing

Molecular Modeling Pro — WindowChem Software
Energy minimization, QSAR (surface area, volume, logP), etc.

PC MODEL — Serena Software

Molecular Modeling:

1. Data Analysis
Structural data (X-ray, NMR structure determination)
Biological data (bioinformatics)
Chemical data (QSAR of conventional compound synthesis and combinatorial chemistry)

2. Theory and Prediction
Molecular energy (structure and folding)
Molecular dynamics (conformational changes)
Molecular recognition (ligand and drug design)


Case Study #1
Virus type 1 Integrase (HIV-1 IN) inhibitors. HIV-1 IN is among one of the most important enzyme responsible for the HIV-1 replication cycle. Because of its essential nature in the replicative cycle of HIV-1, HIV-1 IN is an attractive target for the development of anti-AIDS drugs.
Starting from a pharmacophore hypothesis derived from a known inhibitor of HIV-1 IN, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a three-dimensional search of the NCI database was performed. From this search, 267 structures were found to match the pharmacophore, 60 of those were tested in an in vitro assay against HIV-1 IN and 19 were found to inhibit
both the 3’ processing and strand transfer.
The relevance of the proposed pharmacophore was then tested using a small three dimensional validation database of known HIV-1 IN inhibitors, which had no overlap with the group of compounds found in the initial search. This search strongly supports for the existence of the postulated pharmacophore and in addition, it hinted at the existence of a possible second pharmacophore relevant in the binding to IN.Using the second pharmacophore in a threedimensional search of the NCI database, 10 novel structurally diverse HIV-1 IN inhibitors were found.

Case Study #2
Recently a pioneering study was published by the group of Fesik. In this work, they elegantly combined the advantage of rational design and combinatorial chemistry by a new procedure called “SAR by NMR”. In the first step of this process, a library of low molecular weight compounds is screened to identify molecules that bind to the protein. Addition of a substrate with sufficient affinity to the 15N-enriched protein in solution yields a shift of the HSQC NMR signals for all groups near to the binding site.
In the next step, once a lead is identified, analogs are screened to optimize binding to this site. Searching for a second binding site is then undertaken in either the original screen or a screen conducted in the presence of the first fragment. The second ligand is then optimized. When the two optimized fragments have been selected, their location and orientation are determined experimentally by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Finally, on the basis of this structural information, suitable linkers for the two ligands are modeled on the computer.

The advantage of the Fesik approach is that one needs only weak binding for single ligands. Linking such weak binders provides not only the product of binding constants of the single substances but an additional entropic contribution which yields superactive compounds.

CADD approaches aim to increase the speed and efficiency in the drug discovery process which provides a somewhat more detailed map to the goal. The hope is that providing bit and pieces of information and by helping to coordinate the information, CADD will help to make the drug design process more rational. The many success stories of the use of CADD in the discovery of new drugs shows the utility of such analyses used in close coupling with traditional medicinal chemistry techniques.
CADD is now widely recognized as a viable alternative and complement to high-throughput screening. The search for new molecular entities has led to the construction of high quality datasets and design libraries that may be optimized for molecular diversity or similarity. On the other hand, advances in molecular docking algorithms, combined with improvements in computational infrastructure, are enabling rapid improvement in screening throughput. Propelled by increasingly powerful technology, distributed computing is gaining popularity for large-scale screening initiatives. Recent examples include the European Union funded WISDOM (World-wide In Silico Docking on Malaria) project which analyzed over 41 million malaria-relevant compounds in _1 month using 1700 computers from 15 countries, and the Chinese funded Drug Discovery Grid (DDGrid) for anti-SARS and anti-diabetes research with a calculation capacity of >1 Tflops per second. Combined with concerted efforts towards the design of more detailed physical models such as solubility and protein solvation, these advancements will, for the first time, allow the realization of the full potential of lead discovery by design.

Sundarbans,The World Heritage Site Of Bangladesh Is Under Warning Of Water Salinity

Climate change is a real threat  to ecosystem and bio-diversity of the Sundarban. Increasing temperature and rising of sea level will also seriously affect the Sundarbans’ ecosystem and biodiversity. Due to a combination of high evapotranspiration and low flow in winter, the salinity rate of the soil would increase gradually. As a result the growth of freshwater loving species would be severely affected. A study found that total tree cover in 2010 decreased by about 3% from that of 1989. The changes in the tree composition have been attributed to increased salinity. To Read more Please visit:

The science of love is still in its infancy. Yet scientists are beginning to get early insights into the nature and origin of love. We can now look inside human brains to view changing patterns of activity and biochemical changes that take place during love, explore diverse human experiences of love, study how we select mates and woo lovers.

Addiction to love: In the brain, romantic love shows similarities to going mildly insane or suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder. Studies show that when you first fall in love, serotonin levels plummet and the brain’s reward centers are flooded with dopamine. This gives a high similar to an addictive drug, creating powerful links in our minds between pleasure and the object of our affection.
Lust is driven by sex hormones such as testosterone, which can go off-kilter too. As can levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the amphetamine-like chemical phenylethlyamine, increasing excitement. Other hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, Oxytocin is produced when couples have sex and touch, kiss and massage each other – the hormone makes us more trusting, helps overcome “social fear” and is important for bonding.

Select mates: Many factors add up to make us desirable to potential partners. There’s the obvious stuff like symmetrical features and good skin, which showcase a healthy development, immune system and good genes. Women look for tall men with masculine faces, kindness, wealth and status. Men prefer young fertile women with a low waist-to-hip ratio and who are not too tall. Neither sex is very keen on people who wear glasses.
Smell appears to be important as well; people are often more attracted to the smell of those who have different combinations of some immune system (MHC) genes to themselves. Mates with dissimilar MHC genes produce healthier offspring that are better able to thwart disease. People with similar MHC genes even prefer the same perfumes.

Love Relation Break: Falling in love may have evolved because people who focus their attention on a single ideal partner save time and energy, therefore improve their chances of survival and reproduction. Painful emotions develop when the reward centers of the brain, associated with the dopamine high of falling in love, fail to get their hit. Paradoxically when we get dumped we tend to love back even harder, as the brain networks and chemicals associated with love increase. Then love can turn to anger and hate, as the regions associated with reward are closely linked to rage in the brain. Finally when jilted lovers are resigned to their fate, they will often enter into prolonged periods of depression and despair.

Finally want to share something: “Even if you’re not a virgin, if you want to be a terrific lover, you have to have a solid foundation in sexual functioning. When you understand how the male and female anatomy works and how our bodies develop into sexual beings, you’ve mastered the basics______Dr. Ruth K Westheimer”

New Scientist:

AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by the virus known as HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency Virus Type One). The HIV attacks the body’s immune system by destroying certain types of white blood cells (CD4+) called lymphocytes that help the body fight infection. A person with HIV infection may appear and feel healthy for many years. When someone is HIV-positive, that person has HIV antibodies in his or her body. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to fight germs or infections Research suggests that the average incubation period from infection with HIV to the development of AIDS is approximately 10 years.

How do you get HIV?
HIV is transmitted through the bodily fluids of an individual carrying the virus. These bodily fluids are blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. HIV can be transmitted in the following ways:

• Through the exchange or intake of blood, semen, or vaginal fluids while having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who is HIV-positive.

• By sharing needles used to draw tattoos, give blood, or pierce ears or by sharing syringes used to inject illegal or prescribed drugs with someone who is HIV positive.

• Through perinatal transmission – when a HIV positive woman transmits the virus to her fetus during pregnancy to her baby while breast-feeding.

How HIV infects the body?
It is only now that scientists have learned how HIV infects the body. They have realized that it works in two phases, the M-tropic phase and the T-tropic phase, and that it looks for receptor sites to bond to. CCR5, a chemokine, is the second receptor site for HIV-1 in the M-tropic phase. Here is given the Process of HIV Replication (animation) in below:

HIV Replecation

HIV epidemiology in Bangladesh:
The first case of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh was detected in 1989. Since then 1495 cases of HIV/AIDS have been reported (as of December 2008). However UNAIDS estimates that the number of people living with HIV in the country may be as high as 12,000, which is within the range of the low estimate by UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children Report 2009.
The number of AIDS patients has been on the rise in Bangladesh at a fast pace. Data from the country’s Health Ministry revealed that some 445 new HIV positive cases and 251 AIDS patients were detected in 2011. It showed 343 new HIV positives and 231 AIDS cases in 2010 while the number of new HIV positives was 250 and AIDS cases were 143 in 2009 & Some 37 people died of AIDS in 2010.
The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is less than 1%, however, high levels of HIV infection have been found among injecting drug users (7% in one part of the capital city, Dhaka). Due to the limited access to voluntary counseling and testing services, very few Bangladeshi’s are aware of their HIV status. Although still considered to be a low prevalence country, Bangladesh remains extremely vulnerable to an HIV epidemic, given its dire poverty, overpopulation, gender inequality and high levels of transactional sex. The emergence of a generalized HIV epidemic would be a disaster that poverty-stricken Bangladesh could ill-afford. It is estimated that without any intervention the prevalence in the general adult population could be as high as 2% in 2012 and 8% by 2025.

Medicinal plants as traditional medicine against HIV:
Traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Traditional healers’ indigenous knowledge can help pinpoint medicinal plants used to manage HIV/AIDS. Bangladesh has a rich history of several traditional medicinal systems, among whom the most notable ones are the Ayurvedic, Unani, and the folk medicinal systems. Regarding HIV/AIDS related infections, many people think that using modern medicine is of no use, rather using traditional medicine or spiritual effects can help in this case.
The inclusion of anti-HIV ethnomedicines and other natural products in official HIV/AIDS policy is an extremely sensitive and contentious issue. many HIV-infected persons have access to antiretroviral drugs, but some still use ethnomedicinal plants and other natural products to treat opportunistic infections and offset side-effects from antiretroviral medication. Medicinal plants and other natural products including mushrooms are used as primary treatment for HIV-related problems such as skin disorders, nausea, depression, insomnia, and body weakness. Herbal medicines provide rational means for the treatment of many diseases that are obstinate and incurable in western systems of medicine. Phytomedicines are regaining patient acceptance because they have fewer side effects, are relatively less expensive, are easy to use and have a long history of use. Medicinal effects of plants tend to normalize physiological function and correct the underlying cause of the disorder. Sub-Saharan Africa has rich plant biodiversity and a long tradition of medicinal use of plants with over 3,000 species of plants used as medicines. Several of these plants may contain novel anti-HIV compounds. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plant use also provides leads towards therapeutic concept thereby accelerating drug discovery; this is now being called reverse pharmacology. Thus, it is important to search for novel antiretroviral agents which can be added to or replace the current arsenal of drugs against HIV.
Some evidences with links:

a) A chemical from the Astragalus root, frequently used in Chinese herbal therapy, can prevent or slow progressive telomere shortening, which could make it a key weapon in the fight against HIV.
Chemical From Medicinal Plants May Be Used To Fight HIV

b) Genetically modified tobacco plants can grow specific proteins that scientists know will act on the HIV virus.
Fighting HIV in developing countries – with tobacco

Malaria is one of the major tropical parasitic diseases responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children and pregnant women. Malaria is caused by a single celled protozoan parasites called Plasmodium and transmitted to man thought the anopheles mosquito. It is one of the major fatal diseases in the world, especially in the tropics and is endemic in some 102 countries with more than half of the world population at risk. Malaria accounts for 310 – 515 million clinical episodes with 1.5 – 3.0 million deaths per year, 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the world’s most devastating disease. An estimated 2 billion people are exposed to the global endemic among which 500 million are affected by this disease yearly and 1 – 2 million people die yearly as a result of malaria.

Malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh:
Malaria is a major health burden in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh, especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. In Bangladesh, malaria is most likely a seasonal disease and concentrated in border regions. Thirteen districts in the north, north-east and south-east regions are highly malaria endemic. These are Khagrachhari, Rangamati, Bandarban, Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Moulvibazar, Hobiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Sherpur and Kurigram. About 98% of the malaria cases are reported from these districts. The ecological situation of all these districts favours transmission of the disease. Three districts namely Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban located in hilly remote areas of Chittagong Hill Tracts suffer from geographical disadvantage with difficult communication and intense perennial transmissions of malaria (BHP 2008). Currently the number of malaria endemic upazilas is 70 and the total population at risk is 10.9 million. The average malaria prevalence in Khagrachari district was 15.47% (n = 750). Table 1 lists the individual prevalence of malaria for the thanas in Khagrachari. The highest prevalence was found in Dighinala (22%) and lowest prevalence was found in Panchari (5.72%). The overall malaria prevalence in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) districts was 11.7%. The prevalence rate was 15.25%, 10.97% and 7.42% in Khagrachari, Bandarban and Rangamati districts respectively.

the following link help you to understand the Pathogenesis of Malaria

Malaria – Life Cycle of Plasmodium

Local name of malaria in Bangladesh:
In the Bangali and Chakma communities they used to call it as Kala ajar because some people opined that the malaria patient became short of hearing, few other people opined that the skin of malaria patient turned black. In both the communities, people used to call it Hati jar to refer to malaria because of its mammoth harmfulness. In terms of duration and physical harm and costs, the Bangali community used to call it as Moron jar or Pocha jar because of its long duration and incurability. In Chakma community people regard it as Bhanga jar because of the rapid emaciation of the body. In Tripura community they have a single name for it the Miaung Kulung based on its symptoms.

Medicinal Plants against Malaria Treatment:
The antimalarial drug, quinine, whose use has been documented almost 400 years ago, was isolated from the bark of the Cinchona tree, which also contains three other antimalarial compounds, namely, quinidine, cinchonine, and cinchonidine. A common antimalarial drug in use today is chloroquine, a synthetic derivative of quinine. The latest antimalarial drug is artemisinin, which is derived from the plant Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae), and has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 1,000 years for treatment of malaria. Artemisinin derived antimalarial drugs like artesunate and artelinic acid reportedly caused embryo death and malformations in pregnant rats by killing embryonic erythroblasts. Some findings indicate that P. falciparumstrains may be developing resistant varieties to artemisinin in China. Studies have documented over 1,200 plant species from 160 families used in the treatment of malarial or fever. Ethnobotanical survey is an important step in the identification, selection and development of the therapeutic agents from medicinal plants. In ethnobotany and natural products chemistry, the mode of preparation and administration of herbal preparations are often crucial variables in determining efficacy in pharmacological evaluation.