Archive for the ‘Research’ Category

Rape itself is not only a crime. Rape is a state of mind which insists a hyper sexually disordered person (a rapist) for having or creating or fantasizing Sexual attack to the opposite sex, maybe also to the same-sex. A rapist or a hyper sexually disordered person can live in several forms among us and this category of forms would divide by according to their ways of addiction onto biological sex.

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The sexual assaulted techniques or fantasies in biological sex do not create in a day, as because this is fully a psychological imbalance of a person’s mind about the sexual intercourse or sexual arousal. So it can be said that those thoughts of sexual arousal techniques are developed mostly from the adolescent stage of a person, in some cases, they could develop from the mid-age stage of the lifespan.

In the following, there has been documented a type of sexually disordered persons living around us, those who would be a future threat to our society. It is very much important to identify those characteristic hyper-sexually disordered persons or youngsters for providing them the treatment. They badly need psychological counseling. The mind can not conduct with the force of laws as it is a spiritual entity gifted by nature.

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Types of sexual disorders’ or category of hyper sexually disordered person:
1. Exhibitionism: Exposing genitals to an unsuspecting stranger.
A man with exhibitionism typically gets an erection and may masturbate while exposing himself. Men with this disorder commonly report that they don’t intend to frighten or shock strangers, but hope that strangers will enjoy or be aroused by seeing their genitals.
2. Voyeurism: Observing an unsuspecting person who is disrobing or having sex.
It is characterized by sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve observing someone who is in the process of undressing, is nude, or is engaged in sexual activity. The person being watched has neither consented to nor is aware of being observed. The voyeur rarely has physical contact with the observed person. Moreover, voyeurism is distinguished from looking at pornography or watching nude dancing; voyeurism involves observing someone who does not know that he or she is being observed. A man with this disorder might use binoculars to “spy” on a woman, masturbating while observing her through her window as she undresses, or might plant hidden cameras and watch the video later or via an Internet feed.
3. Frotteurism: Touching or rubbing against a non-consenting person.
This diagnosis has two types: men who like to rub, and men who like to touch (touchers). On crowded public transportation, men with frotteurism try to stand or sit next to attractive females and rub their genitals against the victims’ buttocks, thighs, or crotch, often while fantasizing that they are having consensual sex. When discovered, men with frotteurism flee from the train or bus.
4. Pedophilia: Sexual activity with a prepubescent child.
Child sexual abuse is a crime. the person with pedophilia must be at least 16 years old, and at least 5 years older than the child. Thus, someone is diagnosed with pedophilia if he has had sexual activity with a child (and so would also be considered a child molester) or if he has sexual fantasies about or urges to do so and these impulses significantly impair his relationships or cause distress. Someone with pedophilia may or may not sexually molest children; a child molester may or may not be diagnosed with pedophilia, depending on the duration of the related fantasies, urges, or behaviors.
5. Fetishism: Using a nonliving object to become aroused.
A single, 32-year-old male free-lance photographer presented with the chief complaint of “abnormal sex drive.” The patient related that although he was somewhat sexually attracted by women, he was far more attracted by “their panties”. His first ejaculation occurred at 12 via masturbation to fantasies of women wearing panties. He masturbated into his older sister’s panties, which he had stolen without her knowledge. Subsequently, he stole panties from her friends and other women he met socially. He found pretexts to “wander” into bedrooms of women during social occasions, and would quickly rummage through their possessions until he found a pair of panties to his satisfaction. He later used these to masturbate into and then “saved them” in a “private cache.” The pattern of masturbating into women’s underwear had been his preferred method of achieving sexual excitement and orgasm from adolescence.
Reference: Robin S. Rosenberg and Stephen M. Kosslyn “Abnormal Psychology”
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Science does not allow any limit on your thoughts to think. Every Science fiction thoughts could turn into a Real Science but Every Real Science could never be a Science Fiction of your thoughts. The fiction has innovative power to give you a strength for something new invention. So keep thinking to make your Mind more active rather than to make your brain more usable.  

মানুষ সামাজিক জীব, অনেক গুলো সামাজিক জীবের সমনয়ে গঠিত হয় একটি সমাজ তথা রাস্ট্র। সমাজে বাস করতে গিয়ে একজন মানুষের সাথে অপর একজন মানুষের সাথে যে সম্পর্ক তৈরি হয় তাই তাঁকে সামাজিক জীব করে তোলে। এই সম্পর্ক হতে পারে ভালবাসার-ভাললাগার, হিংসার, লালসা-কামনা, ব্যাথা-বেদনা অথবা দুর্নীতি প্রভৃতি; এক কথায় সব ধরনের আবেগপূর্ণ সম্পর্কই মানুষের সামাজিক জীব হয়ে ওঠার মুল শর্ত।

আবেগ সম্পূর্ণ একটি অবচেতন মনের অংশ বলেই আমার ধারণা। আমরা অনেকেই হয়তো জানি না বা বিশ্বাস করতে চাই না যে, মানুষের মস্তিষ্ক ও মন দুটো সম্পূর্ণ ভিন্ন। দুটোর মধ্যে মুল পার্থক্য এখানেই যে, মন সম্পূর্ণ আলাদা একটি সত্তা; অপরদিকে মানব মস্তিষ্ক একটি দেহের অংশ বিশেষ মাত্র।

{A. The Brain of itself does not work. The brain does not think and yet man thinks. So behind the brain there must be a Thinker”

B. “The man had two minds; One Conscious and one un-conscious or sub-conscious. The Conscious mind being the one that he used of all the time in his self-conscious state and the sub-conscious mind being the storehouse of all his conscious thoughts, as well as the seat of his memory.”

[Ref: The Science of Mind by Ernest S. Holmes] }

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মানুষের (Homo Sapiens)আত্মা অথবা মন (Soul)সাধারণত তিন অবস্থায় থাকতে পারেঃ ১. সচেতন মন (Conscious Mind), (২) অবচেতন মন (Sub-conscious), (৩) অচেতন মন (Unonscious mind)

অবচেতন মনে আমাদের যে আবেগ/অনুভূতি নিঃসৃত হচ্ছে তাই আমরা সচেতন অবস্থায় প্রকাশ করে থাকি। শুধু তাই নয়, অবচেতন মনকেই মুলত সকল কাজকর্ম বা চিন্তা ভাবনার উৎস হিসেবে ধরা যায়। আমি কি বলতে চাই, কি লিখতে চাই, কি দেখতে চাই অথবা কি পড়তে চাই সবই সিধান্ত হচ্ছে অবচেতন মন থেকে, অতঃপর সেই সিধান্তকে আমরা বাস্তবে রুপান্তর করছি সচেতন অবস্থায়। আমাদের যে ভাবনার জগত তা “অবচেতন মন” (Sub-concsious Mind) এবং ভাবনার যে বহিঃপ্রকাশ করছি তাই হচ্ছে “সচেতন মন” (Conscious Mind)। উদাহরন স্বরুপঃ কোন মেয়েকে দেখার পরে একটি ছেলের মনে যে ভাললাগা, আকর্ষণ জন্ম নেয় তাই একটা সময়ে ভালবাসায় হয়তো রূপান্তর হয় এবং এই রুপান্তরের শুরুটা ঘটে ছেলেটির অবচেতন মনে, অবচেতন মন যদি ভালবাসার অনুভুতি না জাগ্রত করতো তবে সচেতন মনে ছেলেটি কোনদিনই সেই ভালবাসার কথা মেয়েটির সম্মুখে প্রকাশ করতে পারতো না। ঠিক অপরভাবে কোন মেয়ের প্রতি যদি কোন ছেলের লালসা-কামনা জেগে উঠে তবে তা রুপান্তরিত হতে পারে ধর্ষণে কিংবা ইভ টিজিঙের মাধ্যমে। এই রুপান্তরিত অনুভূতি (লালসা-কামনা) সম্পন্ন হচ্ছে অবচেতন মনে আর রুপান্তরিত হওয়ার ফলে যে ফলাফল (ধর্ষণ / ইভ টিজিং) আসতেছে তার বহিঃপ্রকাশ ঘটছে সচেতন মনে। তাই বলা বাহুল্য রাখে না যে, এই অবচেতন মনই আমাদের কে পরিচালনা করে আসতেছে মানব সৃষ্টির শুরু থেকেই। অতএব, মস্তিষ্ক নয়, অবচেতন মনকে আমরা ধরে নিতে পারি আমাদের জীবনের কান্ডারী। এই অবচেতন মনেই বাসা বেঁধে আছে সব রকমের ভালোবাসা, ব্যাথা বেদনা, হাসি-কান্না ইত্যাদি সকল অনুভূতি কিংবা আবেগ।

এবার মূল প্রসঙ্গে আসা যাক; সম্পর্ক-হীন সমাজঃ সম্পর্কহীন সমাজ আমরা তাকেই বলবো যে সমাজে মানুষের সাথে মানুষের কোন প্রকার সম্পর্ক নেই। একটি একটি মানুষের জীবন হবে এক একটি সম্পর্কহীন জীবন। ছোট্ট কথায় বলা যেতে পারে, আবেগহীন জীবনই সম্পর্কহীন জীবন। তাই সম্পর্কহীন জীবনের মৌলিক শর্ত হতে হবেঃ 

১. মানুষ সামাজিক জীব নয় অসামাজিক জীব হয়ে বসবাস করবে

২. মানুষের জীবনে কোন প্রকার আবেগ অথবা অনুভূতি থাকবে না।

অসামাজিক জীব হয়ে ওঠার অর্থ এই নয় যে মানুষ হত্যা-খুন, ধর্ষণ, ঝগড়া-ফ্যাসাদ ইত্যাদি নানা অপকর্মে লিপ্ত হবে। এখানে অসামাজিক জীব বলতে আমরা বুজবো সম্পর্ক বিহীন জীব। আর সম্পর্কহীন জীবের প্রথম ধাপ হলো আবেগহীন অথবা অনুভূতিহীন হয়ে পড়া, অর্থাৎ অবচেতনে মনে কোন প্রকার আবেগ জড়িত থাকতে পারবে না। এখন অনেকেই বলে উঠতে পারি, আবেগহীন মানুষ তো মানুষ নয়, রোবট হবে !!! কিন্তু তা ভুল, কেননা রক্ত মাংস দিয়ে আবেগহীন যে গঠন সৃষ্টি হবে তা কোনদিনই রোবট হতে পারে না। সম্পর্কহীন জিবনে তথা সমাজে আমরা যা করে বেড়াবো, হতে পারে তা ভালোবাসা, হতে পারে তা শত্রুতা কিংবা অনেক কিছুই, কিন্তু এই সব কিছুই হতে হবে আবেগ অথবা অনুভূতিহীন। এক কথায় সম্পর্কহীন জীবন মানেই মন থেকে আবেগের বিসর্জন কিংবা অনুভূতি সমূহের বিলুপ্তি।

মন (Soul/Mind) হচ্ছে মানুষের একটি ভিন্ন জৈবিক সত্তা, ভিন্ন কেননা একে ছোঁয়া যায় না, ধরা যায় না, দেখা যায় না কিন্তু শুধু মাত্র অনুভব করতে পারি আমরা। এই অনুভবটাই প্রমাণ করে মন বলে একটি সত্তা মানুষের মধ্যে বিদ্যমান। এই অদৃশ্য সত্তাকে (মন) নিয়ন্ত্রনের মাধ্যমেই সম্পর্কহীন মানুষ হওয়া সম্ভব এবং তার জন্যে প্রয়োজন হবে মলিকিউলার সাইকোফিজিওলজি (Molicular Psychophysiology) সম্পর্কিত জ্ঞ্যান, অতঃপর মাইন্ড কন্ট্রোল ডিভাইস (Mind Control Device);

{“Scientists can now remotely turn genes on and off inside a mouse using nothing but the power of their minds. Based on this technology, they’re now working on new ‘in-built’ medical treatments that allow a patient’s brainwaves to identify pain or an impending epileptic seizure and automatically release medication into the body.”

[Ref: Mind-controlled transgene expression by a wireless-powered optogenetic designer cell implant; Nature Communications 5, Article number: 5392]}.

একটি মাইন্ড কন্ট্রোল ডিভাইস দিয়ে আমরা নিজেরাই আমাদের শরীরের কিছু জীনের কার্যক্রম নিয়ন্ত্রন করতে পারবো। এই ডিভাইস সহায়তা করবে মানুষের বিভিন্ন মস্তিষ্ক তরঙ্গ চিহ্নিত করতে যারা কিনা বিভিন্ন অনুভূতির সাথে জড়িত কেননা অবচেতন মন আমাদের যেভাবে যে দিকে পরিচালনা করবে তার প্রভাব আমাদের নিউরন সেলে গিয়ে সেই পরিবর্তন আনবে। বিজ্ঞানের কল্যাণে আজ অনেক বৈজ্ঞানিক কল্পকাহিনীকে বাস্তবে রুপ দেওয়া সম্ভব হচ্ছে। কে জানতো একজন মানুষ তার মস্তিষ্ক দিয়ে অন্য আরেকটি মস্তিষ্কের সাথে সংযোগ স্থাপন করতে পারবে ? হ্যাঁ এটিও এখন করা সম্ভব এবং বিজ্ঞান আমাদের সেই সময়ের দিকেই ধাবিত করে চলেছে প্রতিনিয়ত।

[{“1. The team, which includes researchers from Harvard Medical School’s Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the Starlab Barcelona in Spain, and Axilum Robotics in France, has announced the successful transmission of a brain-to-brain message over a distance of 8,000 kilometres.

2. The second time scientist have succeeded in creating the brain-to-brain communication. Scientists in the US have successfully linked the brains of six people, allowing one person to control the hands of another using just their thoughts.”

[Ref: 1. Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies; PLoS ONE 9(8): e105225

2. A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans; PLoS ONE 9(11): e111332”]

উপরের উল্লেখিত উদাহরন দুটিই বলে দিচ্ছে, মানুষ একদিন তার চিন্তা-ভাবনার নিয়ন্ত্রন নিজেরাই পরিচালনা করতে যাচ্ছে। অতএব সম্পর্কহীন জীবন তথা সম্পর্কহীন সমাজ ব্যবস্থা গড়ে তোলা সম্ভব। একে কল্পকাহিনী ভেবে বসার কোন অবকাশ নেই। আমি চাই আমাদের সমাজ ব্যবস্থা সম্পর্কহীন হবে কেননা একটি সম্পর্কহীন জীবন মানেই একটি সম্পূর্ণ স্বাধীন জীবন আর একটি সম্পূর্ণ স্বাধীন জীবন পেতে কে না চায় বলুন?

Why should Bangladeshi People Raise their voices against the commercialization of Genetically Modified Brinjal in Bangladesh: To know more details have a look into the link:

Can Genetically Modified (GM) Food Be Bad for Our Health?.

Almost every Muslim is seriously concerned about what he or she eats. There is a complete code of dietary laws present in the Holy Quran for the followers of Islam. Some basic principles are described as all foods are permitted except those mentioned clearly in the Holy Quran. The most recent advancements of biotechnology in field of food industry like status of GMO’s, use of genes, enzymes, food additives or enhancer in food in Islam deduced by the Ijma or Qiyas. These if obtained from plant origin would be considered as Halal. If obtained from animals then Islamic Shari’ah put some restrictions about the animal that it should be permitted by Supreme law giver, and should be fit, clean and wholesome for health. The Muslim consumers should be particular and sensitive to the products they use for the Halal or haram issue. The recent advancements and impact of these advancements upon status of divine dietary law is very important. Reason for Muslims to observe these dietary laws are to follow the Divine Commandments.

“O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome on earth…..” (Quran 2:168)

Principle for Halal food:
Halal means permissible and lawful while Haram means prohibited. It is exactly opposite of Halal. In general, every food is allowed for Muslims except what is prohibited either by the Holy Quran or by the Hadith. These rules of Shari’ah (Islamic law) bring freedom of choice for people to eat and drink anything they like as long as it is not haram (prohibited).

Alcohol and other intoxicants are also prohibited as:

“O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance, and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed” (Quran 5: 90)

Blood, pork, and the meat of dead animals or those immolated to other than God are strongly prohibited. It is also ordered that Halal animals should be slaughtered while uttering the name of Allah at the time of slaughter.
“Eat of that over which the name of Allah hath been mentioned, if ye are believers in His revelations” (Quran 6: 118)

“And eat not of that whereon Allah’s name hath not been mentioned, for lo! It is abomination. Lo! The devils do inspire their minions to dispute with you. But if ye obey them, ye will be in truth idolaters” (Quran 6: 121).

Genetic modifications (Use of gene):
The status of the process of genetic modification is controversial. According to some Muslim scholars and jurisprudence the process of altering some physical traits or nature created by Almighty is sin as it is mentioned in Quran clearly.

“….assuredly I will incite them and they will cut the ears of cattle; and assuredly I will incite them and they will alter Allah’s creation.” And he who takes Satan for a friend beside Allah has certainly suffered a manifest loss.” (Quran 4:119)

So according to this verse the alteration is not permitted as God is Supreme Power and Creator and no one can or would interfere with His power. Here two thoughts arise:
• Either alteration is just for alteration purposes (No purpose except beauty like in cosmetics or face surgery)
• Or alteration is for some useful purpose (For welfare of humankind) but it does not harm nature or other creatures.
Genetic modifications are permitted by some group of thoughts as these things are not mentioned clearly in the Holy Quran or Hadith (Traditions of Prophet Muhammad) because these are recent advancements. By the Qiyas and Ijma with some limitations it is allowed. Genetic modifications that especially are an issue of concern can be categorized as:

• From animals to plants and vice versa
• From insects to plants
• From animals to animals

Gene products (Enzymes):
Enzymes can be taken from animals, plants and microorganism also. They can be Halal or haram depending upon the source. If the source is Halal then they are considered as Halal as long as animal is slaughter according to Islamic Shari’ah, if not then enzyme will be mashbooh (doubtful). For example pepsin/proteases and catalyses are extracted from cattle/pig’s stomach and bovine liver respectively.

Halal is the dietary laws for Muslims. So the food industry needs to understand the requirements for producing products for Muslim markets. It also needs to understand the import requirements of countries with Muslim populations, which cover religious as well as safety aspects of imported food. The Halal foods should be mentioned clearly by labeling the hidden food ingredients. The Muslim scholars need to infer opinions with the advancement of biotechnology.

Sources:
1. Khattak, J.Z.K., Asif M., Zubair, A., Hussain, M.W., Ghulam, A., Haider, K.K., Humaira, I., 2011. Concept of halal food &Biotechnology, Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(5): 385-389.

2. Mathewson, P.R., 1998. Major biological sources of enzymes (Appendix C), in Enzymes, Eagan Press, St.Paul, MN, pp: 93-95.

3. Pickthall, M.M., 1994. Arabic text and English rendering of The Glorious Quran, Library of Islam, Kazi Publications, Chicago, IL.

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells caused by multiple changes in gene expression leading to deregulated balance of cell proliferation and cell death and ultimately evolving into a population of cells that can invade tissues and metastasize to distant sites, causing significant morbidity and, if untreated, death of the host. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected. Cancers are caused by exogenous chemical, physical, or biological carcinogens.
Although cancer can occur at any age, it is usually considered a disease of aging. The average age at the time of diagnosis for cancer of all sites is 67 years, and about 76% of all cancers are diagnosed at age 55 or older. Although cancer is relatively rare in children, it is the second leading cause of death in children ages 1–14. In this age group leukemia is the most common cause of death. Thus even though the overall death rates due to cancer have almost tripled since 1930 for men and gone up over 50% for women, the age-adjusted cancer death rates in men have only increased 54% in men and not at all for women. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 84 million people will die of cancer between 2005 and 2015 around the world. In 2007, there were 7.9 million deaths from cancer, around 13 percent of all deaths.


Cancer Epidemiology in Bangladesh

Like many other countries in the world cancer in Bangladesh is one of the major killer diseases. The National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka, started a cancer registry in 2005 for the first time in Bangladesh with technical assistance from the World Health Organization (WHO).  This report covers three years from 2005 to 2007. Data were collected from 24,847 cancer patients who attended the NICRH for the first time. Essential information (confirmed diagnosis) could be made available for 18,829 cases, and they are included in this analysis. Among them 10,847 (57.6%) were males. Lung cancer was the leading cancer (17.3%), followed by cancers of breast (12.3%), lymph nodes and lymphatics (8.4%) and cervix (8.4%) for sexes combined in all ages. In males lung (25.5%) and in females breast (25.6%) and cervical (21.5%) cancers were predominant. In children aged 14 years or younger (n=657) lymphoma, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, leukaemia and kidney cancers were most prevalent. lung cancer in males, and cervical and breast cancer in females constitute 38% of all cancers in Bangladesh (Cancer registry report 2005-2007). According to the latest WHO data published in April 2011 Oral Cancer Deaths in Bangladesh reached 11,562 or 1.21% of total deaths. The age adjusted Death Rate is 12.52 per 100,000 of population ranks Bangladesh #4 in the world.  At present, there are one million (10 lakh) cancer patients in Bangladesh while approximately 200,000 new patients, mostly women, are added every year creating a social burden on the country. The country’s women are now in danger of being affected by cervical cancer, one of the sexually transmitted diseases that claim the life of 18 women every day in the country for lack of awareness.

Traditional Medicine against Cancer

Various plants have been used against cancer in folk traditional medicine of Bangladesh. . Traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines (Cotton, C.M., 1996). Bangladesh has a rich history of several traditional medicinal systems, among whom the most notable ones are the Ayurvedic, Unani, and the folk medicinal systems. Folk medicine is practiced by Kavirajes who utilize simple formulations of medicinal plants in most of their preparations. Recently World Health Organization has shown great interest in documenting the use of medicinal plants used by tribes from different parts of the world. Many developing countries have intensified their efforts in documenting the ethnomedical data and scientific research on medicinal plants. Natural products or natural product derivatives comprised 14 of the top 35 drugs in 2000 based on worldwide sales (Butlet, 2004). Two plant derived natural products, paclitaxel and camptothecin were estimated to account for nearly one-third of the global anticancer market or about $3 billion of $9 billion in total annually in 2002 (Oberlines and Kroll, 2004). Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin (Epipodophyllotoxins are alkaloids naturally occurring in the root of American Mayapple plant (Podophyllum peltatum) and currently used in the treatment of cancer) are in clinical use all over the world. There are more than 270,000 higher plants existing on this planet. But only a small portion has been explored phytochemically. So, it is anticipated that plants can provide potential bioactive compounds for the development of new ‘leads’ to combat cancer diseases.

References:

Butlet MS. The role of natural product chemistry in drug discovery. J Nat Prod. 2004; 67: 2141-53.

Cancer Registry Report 2005-2007, National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital, Dhaka, December 2009.

Cotton CM., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle ad Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 399.

Oberlines NH, Kroll DJ. Camptothecins and taxol: historic achievement in natural products research. J Nat Prod. 2004; 67: 129-35.

Wingo P. A., C. J. Cardinez, S. H. Landis, R. T. Greenlee, A. G. Ries, R. N. Anderson, and M. J. Thun: Long-term trends in cancer mortality in the United States, 1930–1998. Cancer 97:3133, 2003.

A medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which are precursors for chemo-pharmaceutical semi-synthesis. When a plant is designated as ‘medicinal’, it is implied that the said plant is useful as a drug or therapeutic agent or an active ingredient of a medicinal preparation. Medicinal plants may therefore be defined as a group of plants that possess some special properties or virtues that qualify them as articles of drugs and therapeutic agents, and are used for medicinal purposes.

History of Plant Based Traditional Medicine 

Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine (TM) practices that have been used for thousands of years by people in China, India, and many other countries. Some of the earliest records of the usage of plants as drugs are found in the Artharvaveda, which is the basis for Ayurvedic medicine in India (dating back to 2000 BCE), the clay tablets in Mesopotamia (1700 BCE), and the Eber Papyrus in Egypt (1550 BCE). Other famous literature sources on medicinal plant include “De Materia Medica,” written by Dioscorides between CE 60 and 78, and “Pen Ts’ao Ching Classic of Materia Medica” (written around 200 CE).

Nowadays plants are still important sources of medicines, especially in developing countries that still use plant-based TM for their healthcare. In 1985, it was estimated in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization (WHO) that around 80 % of the world’s population relied on medicinal plants as their primary healthcare source. Even though a more recent figure is not available, the WHO has estimated that up to 80 % of the population in Africa and the majority of the populations in Asia and Latin America still use TM for their primary healthcare needs. In industrialized countries, plant-based traditional medicines or phytotherapeuticals are often termed complementary or alternative medicine (CAM), and their use has increased steadily over the last 10 years. In the USA alone, the total estimated “herbal” sales for 2005 was $4.4 billion, a significant increase from $2.5 billion in 1995. However, such “botanical dietary supplements” are regulated as foods rather than drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA).

Role of Plants in Human History

Plants have also been used in the production of stimulant beverages (e.g. tea, coffee, cocoa, and cola) and inebriants or intoxicants (e.g., wine, beer, kava) in many cultures since ancient times, and this trend continues till today. Tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) was first consumed in ancient China (the earliest reference is around CE 350), while coffee (Coffea arabica L.) was initially cultivated in Yemen for commercial purposes in the 9th century. The Aztec nobility used to consume bitter beverages containing raw cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), red peppers, and various herbs. Nowadays, tea, coffee, and cocoa are important commodities and their consumption has spread worldwide. The active components of these stimulants are methylated xanthine derivatives, namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which are the main constituents of coffee, tea, and cocoa, respectively.

The most popular inebriants in society today are wine, beer, and liquor made from the fermentation of fruits and cereals. Wine was first fermented about 6000–8000 years ago in the Middle East, while the first beer was brewed around 5000–6000 BCE by the Babylonians. The intoxicating ingredient of these drinks is ethanol, a by-product of bacterial fermentation, rather than secondary plant metabolites. Recent studies have shown that a low to moderate consumption of red wine is associated with reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Examples of Some Modern Medicine Discovered from Plants
Plants can provide biologically active molecules and lead structures for the development of modified derivatives with enhanced activity and reduced toxicity. The small fraction of flowering plants that have so far been investigated have yielded about 120 therapeutic agents of known structure from about 90 species of plants. Some of the useful plant drugs include vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, tubocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, capscicine, allicin, curcumin, artemesinin and ephedrine among others. In some cases, the crude extract of medicinal plants may be used as medicaments. About 121 (45 tropical and 76 subtropical) major plant drugs have been identified for which no synthetic one is currently available.

It has been estimated that more than 400 traditional plants  or plant-derived products have been used for the management of type 2 diabetes across geographically. Galegine, a substance produced by the herb Galega officinalis, provides an excellent example of such a discovery. Experimental and clinical evaluations of galegine, provided the pharmacological and chemical basis for the discovery of metformin which is the foundation therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Plant derived agents are also being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world.

In conclusion, plants have provided humans with many of their essential needs, including life-saving pharmaceutical agents. Recently the World Health Organization estimated that 80% people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some aspect. Many developing countries have intensified their efforts in documenting the ethnomedical data and scientific research on medicinal plants. Natural products or natural product derivatives comprised 14 of the top 35 drugs in 2000 based on worldwide sales. There are more than 270,000 higher plants existing on this planet. But only a small portion has been explored phytochemically. So, it is anticipated that plants can provide potential bioactive compounds for the development of new ‘leads’ to combat various diseases. As a vast proportion of the available higher plant species have not yet been screened for biologically active compounds, drug discovery from plants should remain an essential component in the search for new medicines & the scientific study of traditional medicines, concerned medicinal plants are thus of great importance.

References:

Bailey, C.J. and Day, C. (1989) Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care, 12 American diabetes association,553–564.

Butlet MS. The role of natural product chemistry in drug discovery. J Nat Prod. 2004; 67: 2141-53.

K.G. Ramawat and J.M. Mérillon, Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-74600-3.

Kumar, N., M. Abdul Khader, J. B. M., Rangaswami, P. and Irulappan, I. 1997. Introduction to Spices, Plantation Crops, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Kumar, S., Shukla, Y. N., Lavania, U. C., Sharma, A. and Singh, A. K. 1997. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Prospects for India. J. Med. Arom. Pl. Sc. 19 (2):361-365.

P. P. Joy, J. Thomas, S. Mathew, B. P. Skaria, 1998. Medicinal plants, Kerala Agricultural University, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station.