Archive for February, 2012

Malaria is one of the major tropical parasitic diseases responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children and pregnant women. Malaria is caused by a single celled protozoan parasites called Plasmodium and transmitted to man thought the anopheles mosquito. It is one of the major fatal diseases in the world, especially in the tropics and is endemic in some 102 countries with more than half of the world population at risk. Malaria accounts for 310 – 515 million clinical episodes with 1.5 – 3.0 million deaths per year, 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the world’s most devastating disease. An estimated 2 billion people are exposed to the global endemic among which 500 million are affected by this disease yearly and 1 – 2 million people die yearly as a result of malaria.

Malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh:
Malaria is a major health burden in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh, especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. In Bangladesh, malaria is most likely a seasonal disease and concentrated in border regions. Thirteen districts in the north, north-east and south-east regions are highly malaria endemic. These are Khagrachhari, Rangamati, Bandarban, Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Moulvibazar, Hobiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Sherpur and Kurigram. About 98% of the malaria cases are reported from these districts. The ecological situation of all these districts favours transmission of the disease. Three districts namely Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban located in hilly remote areas of Chittagong Hill Tracts suffer from geographical disadvantage with difficult communication and intense perennial transmissions of malaria (BHP 2008). Currently the number of malaria endemic upazilas is 70 and the total population at risk is 10.9 million. The average malaria prevalence in Khagrachari district was 15.47% (n = 750). Table 1 lists the individual prevalence of malaria for the thanas in Khagrachari. The highest prevalence was found in Dighinala (22%) and lowest prevalence was found in Panchari (5.72%). The overall malaria prevalence in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) districts was 11.7%. The prevalence rate was 15.25%, 10.97% and 7.42% in Khagrachari, Bandarban and Rangamati districts respectively.

the following link help you to understand the Pathogenesis of Malaria

Malaria – Life Cycle of Plasmodium

Local name of malaria in Bangladesh:
In the Bangali and Chakma communities they used to call it as Kala ajar because some people opined that the malaria patient became short of hearing, few other people opined that the skin of malaria patient turned black. In both the communities, people used to call it Hati jar to refer to malaria because of its mammoth harmfulness. In terms of duration and physical harm and costs, the Bangali community used to call it as Moron jar or Pocha jar because of its long duration and incurability. In Chakma community people regard it as Bhanga jar because of the rapid emaciation of the body. In Tripura community they have a single name for it the Miaung Kulung based on its symptoms.

Medicinal Plants against Malaria Treatment:
The antimalarial drug, quinine, whose use has been documented almost 400 years ago, was isolated from the bark of the Cinchona tree, which also contains three other antimalarial compounds, namely, quinidine, cinchonine, and cinchonidine. A common antimalarial drug in use today is chloroquine, a synthetic derivative of quinine. The latest antimalarial drug is artemisinin, which is derived from the plant Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae), and has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 1,000 years for treatment of malaria. Artemisinin derived antimalarial drugs like artesunate and artelinic acid reportedly caused embryo death and malformations in pregnant rats by killing embryonic erythroblasts. Some findings indicate that P. falciparumstrains may be developing resistant varieties to artemisinin in China. Studies have documented over 1,200 plant species from 160 families used in the treatment of malarial or fever. Ethnobotanical survey is an important step in the identification, selection and development of the therapeutic agents from medicinal plants. In ethnobotany and natural products chemistry, the mode of preparation and administration of herbal preparations are often crucial variables in determining efficacy in pharmacological evaluation.